Metternich and his Congresses Summary The Congress of Vienna established an international system of reactionary governments dedicated to maintaining a set of European boundaries, preventing revolutions and changes in government, and stopping any one power from becoming too powerful. To this end, the Congress powers agreed to meet whenever trouble should crop up in Europe to discuss how to fix it. This meeting dealt with the coalition of European armies that had been occupying France since Napoleon's defeat. At Aix-la-Chapelle, the powers decided to withdraw their armies.
Introduction Is it possible for a nation to go from wide-open freedom for a civil liberty, to near-total destruction of that liberty, in just a few decades?
Brock suggested in that a ‘reactionary’ phase () when anti-reforming or ‘Ultra’ Tory ministers like Sidmouth suppressed liberties in defence of public order was followed by a ‘liberal’ one () in which ‘Liberal Tories’ like Huskisson, Peel and Robinson introduced reforms in fiscal policy, trade and the legal system. Stephen William Hawking CH CBE FRS FRSA (8 January – 14 March ) was an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, and author, who was director of research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology at the University of Cambridge at the time of his death. He was the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge . Essay Writing Guide. , 'liberal' and 'enlightened'? Extracts from this document Introduction. Tory Government in the Period to had a genuine desire to introduce The Governments actions of repression caused much resentment among the lower classes. There was a death penalty for breaking the Game Laws, this.
As the century closes, the right has been almost obliterated. In studying the destruction of the British right to arms, this Essay draws conclusions about how slippery slopes operate in real life, and about what kinds of conditions increase or decrease the risk that the first steps down a hill will turn into a slide down a slippery slope.
For purposes of this Essay, the reader will not be asked to make a judgement about the righteousness of the former British right to arms or the wisdom of current British gun prohibitions and controls.
Instead, the object is simply to examine how a right that is widely respected and unrestricted can, one "reasonable" step at a time, be extinguished. The investigation of the British experience offers some insights about the current gun control debate in the United States, and also about ongoing debates over other civil liberties.
This Essay does not require that the reader have any affection for the British right to arms; presumably, the reader does have affection for some civil liberties, and the Essay aims to discover principles about how slippery slopes operate. These principles can be applied to any debate where slippery slopes are an issue.
Part II of this Essay briefly sets forth the legal background of the British right to bear arms, as it developed from ancient times to the late nineteenth century. Part III describes the unimpaired British right to arms of the late nineteenth century and the changes in popular culture that began to threaten that right.
Part IV describes how social unrest before World War I intensified the pressure for gun control, and finally resulted in the creation of a licensing system for rifles and handguns after the war.
The gun control system was gradually expanded in the s, relaxed in enforcement during World War II when Nazi invasion loomed, and then re-imposed with full force.
Part V focuses on the turbulent s, and how the government enacted a mild licensing system for shotguns, in order to deflect public cries for re-imposition of the death penalty, following the murder of three policemen by criminals using pistols.
Part VI describes how the British gun licensing system is administered today and how police discretion is used to make the system much more restrictive, even without changes in statutory language. Part VII analyzes the conditions that have created the momentum for the gradual prohibition of all firearms ownership in Great Britain, and how isolated but sensational crimes are used as launching pads for further steps to prohibition.
In Part VIII the Essay looks at how armed self-defense has, without statutory change, gone from being a "good reason" for the granting of a gun license to being prohibited. The decline of other British civil liberties in the late twentieth century, such as freedom of speech, protection from warrantless searches, and criminal procedure safeguards, is discussed in Part p.
Finally, Part X summarizes and elaborates on some of the conditions that make possible a fall down the slippery slope. Throughout this Essay, parallels are drawn between British history and the modern gun control debate in the United States, because the issue of whether any particular set of controls will set the stage for gun prohibition is one of the hotly contested questions in the contemporary discussion.
Wrenching Freedom From the King--The English Bill of Rights and the Right to Arms It began as a duty, operated as a mixed blessing for Kings, and wound up as one of the "true, ancient, and indubitable"  rights of Englishmen.
From as early as the defense of the realm rested in the hands of ordinary Englishmen. Under the English militia system, every able-bodied freeman was expected to defend his society and to provide his own arms, paid for and possessed by himself.
The only early limitations placed on gun possession were for the misuse of arms by appearing in certain public places "with force" under a royal enactment  or by using them "in affray of the peace. Historians view the widespread individual ownership of arms as an important factor in the "moderation of monarchial rule and the development of the concept of individual liberties"  in England during a period when absolute, divine-right royal rule was expanding as the norm in continental Europe.
This included the militia of armed freemen as well as direct political rivals. Through a series of parliamentary enactments, they tried registration of possession, registration of sales, hunting restrictions,  possession bans ostensibly aimed at controlling illegal hunting, restrictions on personal arms possessed by the militia,  warrantless searches, and confiscations.
Thus, William and Mary were required to accept a "declaration of rights" as a definitive statement of the rights of their subjects. That declaration was later enacted as the Bill of Rights.
It contained only two individual rights applicable to the general public: Furthermore, it only effectively limited the monarch, not the Parliament.
Even though the Bill of Rights was by its terms to be upheld "in all times to come," nothing one Parliament does can constrain the actions of subsequent Parliaments. The Anglo-American legal world would not implement a genuine constitution untilwhen newly-independent Virginia created her first.
The experience under the Stuarts, demonstrating the political uses of disarmament, convinced many in the Convention Parliament that there was great danger to the security of English liberties from a disarmed citizenry.
Since the new monarchy was to be a limited one, the members saw both a personal and national interest in the ability of ordinary Englishmen to possess their own defensive arms to restrain the Crown.The Tory party were viewed as the party that would not grant reform, so the Whigs gained the largest increase in support from the change in the franchise.
A new look to the Conservative Party was needed, and Peel was responsible to provide it considering he was the leading member of the Party. Tory Government from to The period of saw the origins of modern day democracy forming in Britain.
It could be said that Britain was going through a. Brock suggested in that a ‘reactionary’ phase () when anti-reforming or ‘Ultra’ Tory ministers like Sidmouth suppressed liberties in defence of public order was followed by a ‘liberal’ one () in which ‘Liberal Tories’ like Huskisson, Peel and Robinson introduced reforms in fiscal policy, trade and the legal system.
Essay Writing Guide. , 'liberal' and 'enlightened'? Extracts from this document Introduction. Tory Government in the Period to had a genuine desire to introduce The Governments actions of repression caused much resentment among the lower classes. There was a death penalty for breaking the Game Laws, this.
How accurate is it to describe the Tory governments in the period of as liberal Tory. Some historians believe that in this period of history the Tory government were liberal as they intended on reforming some aspects of how the country was governed and run.
The Great Famine (Irish: an Gorta Mór, [anˠ ˈgɔɾˠt̪ˠa mˠoːɾˠ]) or the Great Hunger was a period of mass starvation, disease, and emigration in Ireland between and With the greatest impacted areas to the west and south of Ireland, where the Irish language was primarily spoken, the period was contemporaneously known as in Irish: .