Student Answers krishna-agrawala Student Span of management refers to the number of people reporting to a manager in an organization. In a narrow span of management the number of people reporting to a manager is comparatively low.
But a couple of other populations of early adopters made the WELL an open system as well as a specific expression of one side of San Francisco culture.
One such element was the subculture that had been created by a cultural upheaval ten years after the counterculture era--the personal computer PC revolution.
Apple cofounder Steve Jobs had traveled to India in search of enlightenment; Lotus designer and founder Mitch Kapor had been a transcendental meditation teacher.
They were five to ten years younger than the hippies, but they came out of the zeitgeist of the s, and embraced many of the ideas of personal liberation and iconoclasm championed by their slightly older brothers and sisters. The PC was to many of them a talisman of a new kind of war of liberation: Computers for the people was the latest battle in the same campaign.
Although the word hacker has taken on criminal overtones in the popular parlance, restricting it to urchins who break into other people's computer systems, the original hackers were young programmers who flouted conventional wisdom, delighted in finding elegant solutions to vexing technical problems, and liked to create entire new technologies.
Without them, the Department of Defense's ARPA research never would have succeeded in creating computer graphics, computer communications, and the antecedents of personal computing. The young computer wizards and the grizzled old hands who were still messing with mainframes showed up early at the WELL because the guts of the system itself--the Unix operating system and "C" language programming code--were available for tinkering by responsible craftspersons.
The original hackers looked around the system for security holes and helped make the WELL secure against the darkside hackers. Making online tools available to the population, rather than breaking into other systems, was their game. A third cultural element making up the initial mix of the WELL, which otherwise has drifted far from its counterculture origins in many ways, were the Deadheads.
Books and theses have been written about the subculture that has grown up around the band the Grateful Dead. The Deadheads, many of whom weren't born when the band started touring, have a strong feeling of community that they can manifest only in large groups when the band has concerts. Deadheads can spot each other on the road via the semiotics of window decals and bumper stickers, or on the streets via tie-dyed uniforms, but Deadheads didn't have a place.
GD, as it came to be known, was so phenomenally successful that for the first several years, Deadheads were by far the single largest source of income for the enterprise. Because of the way the WELL's software allowed users to build their own boundaries, many Deadheads would invest in the technology and the hours needed to learn the WELL's software, solely in order to trade audiotapes or argue about the meaning of lyrics--and remain blithely unaware of the discussions of politics and technology and classical music happening in other conferences.
But very different kinds of communities began to grow in other parts of the technological-social petri dish that the Deadheads were keeping in business. Along with the other elements came the first marathon swimmers in the new currents of the online information streams, the professional futurists and writers and journalists.
Journalists tend to attract other journalists, and the purpose of journalists is to attract everybody else: Everybody is required to attach their real userid to their postings.
It is possible to use pseudonyms to create alternate identities, or to carry metamessages, but the pseudonyms are always linked in every posting to the real userid. The original PicoSpan software offered to the WELL had an option for allowing users to be anonymous, but one of Stewart Brand's few strong influences on system design was to insist that the anonymity option should not be offered.
Like new recruits or rookies in any ongoing enterprise, we found ourselves relating to each other as a kind of cohort. A lot of that early fraternization was necessitated by the confusing nature of the WELL's software.
It isn't easy to find your way around the WELL, and at first there is always the terrifying delusion that everybody else on the WELL can see all the mistakes you make as you learn your way. The WELL's small staff was available to help confused newcomers via telephone, but the more computer-savvy among the newcomers were eager to actively encourage others.
David Hawkins had worked as an engineer and electrician, and found that he quickly learned enough about the WELL's software to act as an unpaid guide for many of us who joined around the same time he did.
David Hawkins was studying to be a Baptist minister, and he was recently married to Corinne, a woman he had met at the seminary. He was from the Deep South. I had never known a Baptist minister or a good old boy. David changed his original career plans to enter the ministry, and Dhawk spent more and more time online, helping the lost, comforting the afflicted.
The real people behind the online personae were important to him. I remember that no more than a year after he joined the WELL, David Hawkins drove for nearly an hour, every day for most of a week, to visit an online acquaintance who had undergone minor surgery.As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 75, lessons in math, English, science, history, and more.
Plus, get practice tests, quizzes, and personalized coaching to help you succeed. Published: Mon, 5 Dec Ability grouping is viewed by workers as a controversial educational practice (Ansalone, ; Rubin, ) because it has been the subject of more research studies (well over ) than almost any other educational practice” (George & Alexander, , p.
Students with 4 years of arts or music in high school average points better on their SAT scores than students with just one-half year of .
The number of arts teachers in schools has fallen by 11% since and in schools where a subject has been withdrawn, drama and performance has dropped by 23%, art by 17% and design technology by 14%. Assessing the Intrinsic Impacts of a Live Performance 3 ABOUT THE STUDY Assessing the Intrinsic Impacts of a Live Performance is part of a larger multi-method collaborative research effort called The Values and Impact Study, commissioned in by a consortium of 14 major uni-versity arts presenters (MUP).
Another performing arts career in which you’ll need good organization skills is that of a theater stage manager, in charge of making sure shows run smoothly.
You’ll also need great people skills to manage and network with everyone else involved in the show, including front-of-house staff and the director.