They relied on a few ancient philosophers, especially Aristotle, for their scientific knowledge. In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, natural philosophers began to give up their old views and develop new ones. Renaissance humanists had learned Greek and Latin. They were able to read works by Ptolemy, Archimedes, and Plato.
Overview The Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment were two very important aspect of European culture that contributed to its further development into the modern era.
First beginning with Copernicus's assertion that the sun was at the center of the universe, not the earth, a great spiral of scientific discoveries ensued, challenging almost every aspect of the known natural world.
Due to these new scientific developments and methods of obtaining knowledge, the philosophical movement called the Enlightenment arose, in which philosophers of the time began to question political institutions and society in unprecedented ways.
They came up with new social and government reforms, as well as made up a whole new sector of society that gained considerable influence.
The Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment gave way to many controversies but also great successes, as people were able to learn about the natural world and the dangers it might pose as well as gain more individual rights. This era was not only a revolution in science and thinking, therefore, but also a revolution in society and the previously accepted norms.
Top 10 People 1. Copernicus Polish cleric who questioned Aristotelian beliefs in a geocentric universe, developed the theory of heliocentrism, in which the sun is at the center of the universe Changed society's entire worldview, people began to question God and the existence of a supernatural being since heaven no longer had a place in the universe 2.
Galileo Galilei Florentine astronomer, physicist, and mathematician who created the experimental method, law of inertia, and validated Copernicus's belief in heliocentric universe Greatly contributed to modern science, also showed the conflicts that the Catholic Church had with science when he was imprisoned and tortured for refusing to recant 3.
Johannes Kepler Assistant of Tycho Brahe, took his years of data collections and proved Ptolemy's astronomy incorrect. Created theory of elliptical movement of the planets and stated the closer the planets are to the sun, the less time it takes to orbit. Genius behind Brahe's data that made it all come together in new theories 4.
Rene Descartes French philosopher who developed theory of Cartesian Dualism, in which everything was reduced to matter and mind. Created the idea of a scientific method in which one started with the general and moved to the specific deductive reasoning.
Combined with Francis Bacon's inductive reasoning, created the modern scientific method 5.
Francis Bacon English politician and writer who advocated for the experimental method and created inductive reasoning, which was starting from the specific and creating a generalization Combined with Rene Descartes's deductive reasoning, created modern scientific method 6.
Sir Isaac Newton English scientist who developed concepts of centripetal force, acceleration, laws of motion, law of universal gravitation. Also interested in alchemy.
Synthesized the ideas of his scientific predecessors "stood on the shoulders of giants"paved the way for new philosophies 7. John Locke English philosopher, believed that all humans learn by their ideas. Advocated for separation of powers in government, and "life, health, liberty, and possessions" Ideas were a basis for French and American Revolutions, and turned into ideas of Democracy.
JJ Rousseau Swiss philosopher, broke with ideas of Enlightenment, claimed civilization damaged the individual, believed in general will of the people and popular sovereignty in government One of greatest philosophers of the time, but was often criticized for rejection of rationalism and civilization 9.You may use any nonpolitical revolution that brought important intellectual, economic, and/or social changes from your study of global history.
Some suggestions you might wish to consider include the Neolithic Revolution (10,, B.C.), the Scientific Revolution (16thth centuries), the Commercial Revolution.
DBQ Unit 4 During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, political, religious, and social factors affected the work of scientists. In the political aspect, the government established and suppressed the new discoveries which affected the work of scientists. This DBQ asks students to explain how Absolutism and the Enlightenment led to revolutions, and the positive/negative effects.
Doc 1 = Bishop Bossuet's theory of absolutism, Doc 2 = development of English Monarchy from Magna Carta to Glorious Revolution, Doc 3 = excerpts from English Bill of Rights.
06 - The Scientific Method During the Scientific Revolution, the scientific method was created. The scientific method is a systematic procedure for collecting and analyzing evidence. The person who developed the scientific method was Francis Bacon. The Scientific Revolution resulted from a monumental series of discoveries, especially those in astronomy and related fields, in the 16th and 17th centuries.
The impact of these discoveries went far beyond the walls of the laboratory—it created a genuine revolution in .
scientific revolution dbq Document A: Source: World History by McDougal Littell, Although backed by authority and common sense, the geocentric theory did not accurately explain the movements of the sun, the moon, and planets.