France Certain assumptions influenced the way in which the French state developed. The sovereign held power from God. He ruled in accordance with divine and natural justice and had an obligation to preserve the customary rights and liberties of his subjects. The diversity of laws and taxes meant that royal authority rested on a set of quasi-contractual relationships with the orders and bodies of the realm.
Orangerie Gardens at Versailles. Introduction The Palace of Versailles built c. Among its celebrated architectural designs is the Hall of Mirrors Galerie des Glaceswhich is one of the most famous rooms in the world. Located some 20 kilometres southwest of Paris, and set amidst extensive grounds, the palace and its decoration stimulated a mini-renaissance of interior designas well as decorative artduring the 17th and 18th centuries.
From to the beginning of the French Revolution inthe Palace of Versailles housed the King and the entire French royal court, a total of some 3, residents, making it a symbol of the absolutism and decadence of the Ancien Regime in general, and the French monarchy in particular.
The royal chateau itself is not the only building complex in the grounds, which also include five chapels, plus the Grand Trianonthe Pavilion Francaisand the Petit Trianon as well as hectares of gardens, landscaped in the classic French Garden style.
History In - following in the footsteps of Francis I reigned who converted a medieval hunting lodge into a magnificent chateau, establishing the Fontainebleau School in the process - King Louis XIII reigned ordered the building of a hunting lodge on land near the village of Versailles.
This took the form of a small structure, designed by Philibert Le Roy, made of stone and red brick. To begin with c.
It was given a flat roof and two new wings, containing apartments for the king and queen, and was known as Marble Court. By centralizing all government offices at the Palace, and by obliging his nobles to spend a set amount of time there, his aim was to create an all-powerful, absolute monarchy.
Architecture Highlights A court of 3, residents, including the king and queen, members of the royal family, government ministers, aristocrats, diplomats, civil servants and the like, required a suitably grand building, and no expense was spared.
Indeed, the new complex became the apogee of palace architecture. Surrounded by hectares of immaculate gardens, with beautiful vistas, fountains and statues, the palace contained several symmetrical suites of apartments for the public and private use of the king and queen, as well as numerous other architectural highlights.
These included The Hall of Mirrors - the central gallery of the Palace - which comprised 17 mirror-clad arches reflecting the 17 windows.
A total of mirrors were used in its decoration. The ornamentations - the canvases along the ceiling that celebrate the apotheosis of the king, the polychrome marbles, the gilt bronzes -were organized by Le Brun, and in this undertaking he can be said to have reached the peak of the expressive possibilities of French Baroque art.
Another famous room is the Royal Opera of Versailles, designed by Ange-Jacques Gabrielwhich can seat up to guests. It was one of the earliest expressions of the Louis XVI style. Other important reception rooms, included: The rooms were decorated with mural paintingmuch of it by Le Brun, who was strongly influenced by the Italian tradition of architectural Baroque paintingas exemplified by the quadratura illusionism of Pietro da Cortona at the Pitti Palace in Florence.
Additional building works as well as alterations to the gardens, were instigated by both Louis XV and Louis XVI, but no major changes took place. It featured the finest furniture and furnishings, beautiful ceramic art including Sevres porcelain, as well as tapestry art and small-scale bronze sculpture.
The initial salons and the Hall of Mirrors even contained lavish displays of silver table pieces, gueridons and other furniture, though these were later melted down to finance further military campaigns. Designed for the amusements of the court, the park constitutes the natural and ideal backdrop for endless festivities based on the close relationship - typical of the baroque - between celebration and architecture, between the ephemeral and the permanent.
From the original concept, the palace was seen as the centre of an urbanistic system and a reworking of the landscape.
Although it maintains the symmetry of Italian tradition, the park of Versailles has a network of axial pathways leading off to the horizon. These paths are cadenced by rond-points, pavilions, arboreal architecture, wider areas that suddenly appear ahead, stairways, terraces, ponds, and monumental fountains that expand the visual perception of space and add a sense of wonder.The history of Denmark as a unified kingdom began in the 8th century, but historic documents describe the geographic area and the people living there— the Danes —as early as AD.
History of Europe - Major forms of absolutism: Certain assumptions influenced the way in which the French state developed. The sovereign held power from God. He ruled in accordance with divine and natural justice and had an obligation to preserve the customary rights and liberties of his subjects. The diversity of laws and taxes meant . Why absolutism failed in England but flourished in France is due mainly to the political situation in each country when the idea was first introduced. In England, during the first half of the 17th century, two monarches came to power that attempted to develop royal absolutism in that country. French cardinal, nobleman, statesman, as well as secretary of state (France) in the early 17th Century Louis XIV Crowned king of France in the 17th and early 18th Century.
These early documents include the writings of Jordanes and lausannecongress2018.com the Christianization of the Danes c. AD, it is clear that there .
If you've ever wondered how Byzantium became Constantinople or why Stalin banished Trotsky, this collection is for you. Explore Europe’s fascinating history with articles, biographies, and timelines about everything from prehistory to the European Union.
History of Europe - Absolutism: Among European states of the High Renaissance, the republic of Venice provided the only important exception to princely rule. History of Europe - Major forms of absolutism: Certain assumptions influenced the way in which the French state developed.
The sovereign held power from God. He ruled in accordance with divine and natural justice and had an obligation to preserve the customary rights and liberties of his subjects.
The diversity of laws and taxes meant . The earlier seventeenth century, and especially the period of the English Revolution (–60), was a time of intense ferment in all areas of life — religion, science, politics, domestic relations, culture.
CHAPTER 15 Absolutism and State Building in Europe, CHAPTER OUTLINE 2. The Theory of Absolutism When seventeenth-century political writers such as Jean Bodin refer to the C. Absolutism and State Building in Central and Eastern Europe 1. Introduction.